Below you will find information on how to accurately cite information using APA style. This is not a comprehensive guide. For more complete information please see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or the Purdue OWL.
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Below are links to some of the most commonly cited types of sources.
As of 4/17/2023, the American Psychological Association had not yet released guidelines on using or referencing generative A.I..
Until they do, we recommend describing your use of the tool in a note and, for the citation, using the company as the author, the date, a description of your prompt, the name and version of the tool, and the URL of the tool. For example:
OpenAI. (2023, April 17). [Response to a prompt to list important questions regarding emerging technologies]. ChatGPT Mar 23 Version. https://chat.openai.com/
When you mention another's work or ideas in your paper, provide an in-text citation.
Paraphrased idea; Author is named in a signal phrase:
According to Volkow, Compton, & Wardo (2017), women who are – or are trying to become – pregnant should not use marijuana, even to treat morning sickness (p. 129).
Direct quote: Author is not named in a signal phrase:
"Pregnant women and those considering becoming pregnant should be advised to avoid using marijuana or other cannabinoids either recreationally or to treat nausea" (Volkow, Compton, & Wardo, 2017, p. 129).
The Reference List:
For further information on this topic please see the APA Paper Format section of this subject guide.
Tips for formatting APA style citations:
The basic format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
Journal Article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
Banet-Weiser, S. (2011). Convergence on the street: Rethinking the authentic/commercial binary. Cultural Studies, 25, 641-658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2011.600553
Meyer, C. G., O'Malley, J. M., Papastamatiou, Y. P., Dale, J. J., Hutchinson, M. R., Anderson, J. M., & ... Holland, K. N. (2014). Growth and maximum size of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in Hawaii. Plos ONE, 9(1), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084799
Online Journal Article with No DOI
Lindsey, D. (2010). Evaluating quality control of Wikipedia's feature articles. First Monday, 15(4). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2721/2482
Journal Article from a Database with No DOI
The basic format for citing a book is:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Book with a single author:
Pukui, M. K. (1995). Folktales of Hawai‘i. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press.
Book with multiple authors:
Hunt, T. and Lipo, C. (2011). The Statues that walked: Unraveling the mystery of Easter Island. New York, NY: Free Press.
(Insert the authorʻs names in the order that they appear in the book/paper)
Jung, M. (2006). Reworking race: The making of Hawaii’s interracial labor movement. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com
(for online books replace "Location: Publisher" with "Retrieved from" and insert the URL)
The basic formatting for citing a webpage is:
Author, A.A. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article. Title of Webpage. Retrieved from URL
Webpage, author named:
Povich, E, S. (2018, May 7). Why most states are struggling to regulate Airbnb. Pew. Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and- analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/05/07/why-most-states-are-struggling-to-regulate-airbnbb
Webpage, no author named:
The Road to resilience. (n.d.). American Psychological Association. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience
(when there is no date given use "n.d.")