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Citations: DOI

Information on why and how to cite your sources using APA & MLA. Includes links to useful tools and tutorials, as well as other citation styles.

What is a DOI?

Many publishers assign a Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) to their digital publications to provide links that are more stable than URLs (more info).

Both APA and MLA styles require the use of DOIs when they are available. In both citation styles the DOI typically falls at the end of the citation.

DOI Lookup

Don't know the DOI? Try the free DOI Lookup service from



Crossref provides a number of ways for you to locate a DOI. These links will take you to their website:

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